The vaccination rate among home health workers in New York as a deadline arrived on Thursday for them to get Covid shots was about 86 percent, exceeding the expectations of some union and industry leaders and suggesting thousands may have made a last-minute decision to be inoculated, according to preliminary state data.
But the state’s survey of agencies providing home health care also showed that at least 34,000 workers appeared to have missed the deadline to get vaccinated under the new state mandate, rendering them unable to work and deepening a labor shortage in the industry.
Some industry leaders had predicted that as few as 70 percent of workers were likely to be vaccinated before the deadline, and the higher-than-expected rate suggested some workers may have chosen to be immunized to save their jobs.
Faced with a similar cutoff the previous week, hospital and nursing home staff in New York accepted the shot in greater numbers than home health aides, who typically make just above minimum wage. About 92 percent of hospital and nursing home workers had received at least one shot when their deadline arrived on Sept. 27.
Though home health workers have largely been out of the spotlight during the pandemic, New York State has at least 250,000 of them, with some estimates rising to over 500,000. The deadline applied to employees of the state’s 1,500 licensed home health agencies. Another 30 percent of home health aides statewide were hired directly by patients through a Medicaid program and were not subject to the mandate.
New York had never before released data on what percentage of home health aides have been vaccinated, making it impossible to draw comparisons with the new numbers, which were released Friday.
The numbers came from a Department of Health survey of all licensed home care agencies, which asked them to report their vaccination levels on Thursday. Agencies representing some 245,000 workers responded. They reported that on average, 86 percent of their employees had been partially vaccinated and that 71 percent had been fully vaccinated.
The State of Vaccine Mandates in the U.S.
- Vaccine rules. On Aug. 23, the F.D.A. granted full approval to Pfizer-BioNTech’s coronavirus vaccine for people 16 and up, paving the way for mandates in both the public and private sectors. Such mandates are legally allowed and have been upheld in court challenges.
- College and universities. More than 400 colleges and universities are requiring students to be vaccinated against Covid-19. Almost all are in states that voted for President Biden.
- Schools. California became the first state to issue a vaccine mandate for all educators and to announce plans to add the Covid-19 vaccine as a requirement to attend school, which could start as early as next fall. Los Angeles already has a vaccine mandate for public school students 12 and older that begins Nov. 21. New York City’s mandate for teachers and staff, which went into effect Oct. 4 after delays due to legal challenges, appears to have prompted thousands of last-minute shots.
- Hospitals and medical centers. Many hospitals and major health systems are requiring employees to get vaccinated. Mandates for health care workers in California and New York State appear to have compelled thousands of holdouts to receive shots.
- Indoor activities. New York City requires workers and customers to show proof of at least one dose of the Covid-19 for indoor dining, gyms, entertainment and performances. Starting Nov. 4, Los Angeles will require most people to provide proof of full vaccination to enter a range of indoor businesses, including restaurants, gyms, museums, movie theaters and salons, in one of the nation’s strictest vaccine rules.
- At the federal level. On Sept. 9, President Biden announced a vaccine mandate for the vast majority of federal workers. This mandate will apply to employees of the executive branch, including the White House and all federal agencies and members of the armed services.
- In the private sector. Mr. Biden has mandated that all companies with more than 100 workers require vaccination or weekly testing, helping propel new corporate vaccination policies. Some companies, like United Airlines and Tyson Foods, had mandates in place before Mr. Biden’s announcement.
The home health care work force in New York has suffered from sharp shortages that have only been intensified by the pandemic, as has been the case in other states. At the same time, demand for home care has risen as people have tried to keep their loved ones out of nursing homes, in part because of the poor conditions in homes that the pandemic exposed.
Though the loss of workers was not as steep as feared, some industry leaders warned that losing even 5 percent or 10 percent of aides in a field already suffering from a labor shortage could lead to the curtailment or elimination of care for thousands of patients. The losses might also create backlogs of patients at hospitals that typically discharge patients to home care, the leaders said.
Al Cardillo, president of the Home Care Association of New York State, said the percentages alone did not tell the whole story. Even some agencies with high vaccination rates were losing large numbers of employees that would be hard to replace, he said.
“I just received word from a New York City-area agency that today, to comply, had to remove 175 home health aides from service,” Mr. Cardillo wrote in an email. “And this is from an agency with a 94 percent vaccination rate among aides. One hundred seventy-five aides in one agency, on top of the emergency shortage that already exists, is just huge.”